Derivative financial instruments
There is exposure to risks in operational and financing activities arising from developments in the prices of energy commodities (electricity, gas, oil, etc.), foreign currencies, interest rates and emission rights. Derivative financial instruments such as financial option, future and swap contracts are used to manage these risks. In the case of commodity contracts, the instruments are categorised as for own use, trading or hedging when the transaction is entered into. Derivative financial instruments other than commodity contracts are generally only entered into to hedge risk.
Measurement and recognition
Derivative financial instruments are measured at fair value, which is based on listed bid prices for assets held or for liabilities to be issued and current offer prices for the assets to be acquired or the obligations held (mark-to-market).
Derivative financial instruments with a positive value are recognised as current (settlement within one year) or non-current (settlement after one year) assets. Instruments with a negative value are recognised as current or non-current liabilities. Assets and liabilities with each counterparty are netted off if there is a contractual right and the intention to settle the contracts net.
Movements in the fair value of derivative financial instruments are recognised directly through the income statement, unless the derivative financial instruments are for own use or risk hedging.
Contracts are classified for own use if they are settled by physical delivery or receipt of energy commodities or emission rights in line with the company's needs. Transactions based upon these contracts are recognised through the income statement in the period in which delivery or receipt takes place (accrual accounting).
Contracts are classified as hedging instruments if the risk of fluctuations in current or future cash flows which could affect the result is hedged. If the hedge can be attributed to a particular risk or to the full movement in the transaction (energy contracts) associated with an asset, liability or highly probable forecast transaction, the attributed derivative financial instruments are recognised as hedging instruments.
If the conditions for hedge accounting are met, the effective portion of the changes to the fair value of the derivative financial instruments concerned are recognised directly in the equity through the cash flow hedge reserve. The ineffective portion is recognised through the income statement.
Amounts recognised through equity are recognised through the income statement when the hedged asset or liability is settled. When a hedge instrument expires, is sold, terminated or exercised, or when the conditions for hedge accounting are no longer met, although the underlying future transaction has yet to take place, the accumulated result remains in equity until the forecast future transaction has taken place. If the forecast future transaction is no longer likely to take place, the cumulative result is transferred directly from equity to the result.